Why we’re still debating vaccines and the science of why they work

By RYAN BRADLEY, APHealth reporterAPHealthHealth reporterRashida S. Khan, M.D.AP/Associated PressSTAMFORD, Conn.

(AP) — Vaccines are effective, but there’s no evidence that they save lives.

That’s the conclusion of a new review of the evidence on the topic by a team of doctors, including a former chief medical officer of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, who said that even a single case of severe, life-threatening illness can lead to a massive public health problem.

It’s not clear that a vaccine is necessary for protection from serious diseases, but it’s a reasonable safety measure to keep people healthy and away from other risks.

The review, published in the journal Vaccine, concluded that vaccines, including the flu shot, have “very little” evidence of reducing the risk of serious illness, including deaths.

The vaccine has proven to be safe, but the scientists were skeptical of its efficacy, saying that “even a single adverse event can cause death or disability in a large population.”

The authors said the research did not support the claim that vaccines are more effective than other treatments.

It found that a single flu shot in a population of 100,000 people who are not at high risk for severe illness in any other way did not reduce the risk for any serious illness.

They also did not find that the vaccine reduced the risk among a larger group of people who have a high-risk of serious disease, or among people who received more doses of the vaccine.

They said that this study should have been more thorough and more rigorous than the study done by the CDC, which did not compare the effectiveness of different doses of vaccines, or compare the efficacy of different vaccines among people in different groups.

In its review, the researchers also cited the “significant lack of evidence of benefits from flu shots.”

“Despite the apparent benefits of flu vaccines, the evidence base for flu vaccination is still limited,” the researchers wrote.

The CDC, the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have not commented on the study.

In an interview, Dr. Rashida S., the study’s lead author, said the researchers wanted to address the problem of vaccine safety.

She said the evidence is not strong enough to support the idea that flu shots prevent the spread of the virus.

“I think we’re going to have to look at this again,” Dr. S.K. Khan said.

She added that even if a person with a serious illness is vaccinated, the risk remains for a large number of other people.

“So we need to figure out what other risks we have associated with this vaccine,” she said.

The researchers noted that some people who get the flu may be vaccinated but do not have serious illnesses.

They were not able to definitively say whether there is a causal link between the vaccine and the spread and death of serious illnesses, which the CDC defines as death that requires hospitalization or requires hospitalizations for longer than a day, such as pneumonia.

A study published last year in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that the flu vaccine can shorten the duration of hospitalization for many people who receive it, but not everyone gets a flu shot.

Some people who do get a flu vaccine may have milder illness, but others do not, the study found.

Dr. Khan and her colleagues said the new review is not definitive.

They do not know the effectiveness or safety of the flu shots, and they are not recommending people get them.

However, they said, they are “not comfortable” saying that the vaccines are not effective.

They noted that the study did not look at flu shots given in combination with other vaccines.

The new review, however, did not address the issue of whether people who don’t get a vaccine can be protected by flu shots.

In fact, some scientists say they are still arguing whether the flu is a preventable disease.

The most recent influenza vaccine, the shot called LAIV, has been approved by the FDA for use in the United States and other countries.

But the FDA has not yet approved LAIV for use outside the United Nations.

It has not said whether it will do so in the future.


Khan-Watkins and W. Thomas Hughes, the other co-authors, have published more than 20 scientific papers on flu vaccines and are a frequent speaker at health care conferences and other events, such like the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Vaccine Summit, to discuss the topic.

Dr Khan-Hughes was a chief medical director of the CDC from 2010 to 2016 and now serves on the American College of Rheumatology’s board.

She also is a medical officer at the U,S.

Department of Veterans Affairs.

In their review, Drs Khan-Khan and Hughes found that the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of vaccines is mixed.

The scientists did not say that vaccines were unsafe, saying there is “no convincing